My paper is more about writing technique then about historical accuracy so I am not keeping an active bibliography. From what I recall, the article that mentioned Madagascar stated that both it and Congo were French colonies. When massive French construction projects went up in Congo, a group of slaves were brought over from Madagascar who were skilled in construction. These slaves also brought over a primitive dance which when combined with the Congo beat and and a Congo dance, became a precursor to rumba. From what I have read so far, Congo was one of the most developed African countries in terms of music in the late 1800s and early 1900s and a lot of other west and south African beats are derived from what Congo had then, correct?